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Einstein refused several honors as he could not forgive the Holocaust

Albert Einstein.

Albert Einstein was a German citizen from birth. Einstein moved to the United States in December 1932, where he worked at the California Institute of Technology. In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. One of the first actions of Hitler's administration was that removed Jews and politically suspect government employees (including university professors) from their jobs, unless they had demonstrated their loyalty to Germany by serving in World War I.

Einstein renounced his German citizenship in 1933 due to the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Einstein wrote affidavits recommending United States visas for European Jews who were trying to flee persecution and lobbied for looser immigration rules. He raised money for Zionist organizations and was, in part, responsible for the 1933 formation of the International Rescue Committee.

Zionism is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, etc). Labor Zionism or Socialist Zionism is the left wing of the Zionist movement.

In Germany, Deutsche Physik ("German Physics"or Aryan Physics) activists published pamphlets and even textbooks denigrating Einstein. Deutsche Physik was opposed to the work of Albert Einstein and other modern theoretically based physics, which was disparagingly labeled as "Jewish Physics".

During that period, a man convicted of inciting others to kill Einstein was fined a mere six dollars.

After World War II ended, and the Nazis were removed from power, Einstein refused to associate with Germany. Einstein refused several honors bestowed upon him by Germany, as he could not forgive the Germans for the Holocaust, where six million of his fellow Jews were killed.

Einstein was totally sad and he opposed the mass brutal killings of innocent Jewish people. The Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II. During Holocaust, Nazi Germany aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.

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The mystery of Albert Einstein's Brain

Einstein's brain was preserved after his death in 1955, but this fact was not revealed until 1986.

On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the ballooning and rupture of the largest abdominal artery, which had previously been reinforced surgically in 1948. He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it.

Lateral sulcuss shown in red.

Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly." He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end.

During the autopsy, the pathologist, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.

One of the original pathology photos of the Brain before being sectioned.

The autopsy was conducted at Princeton Hospital, on April 18 at 8:00 am. Einstein's brain weighed 1,230 grams -well within the normal human range- which immediately dispelled the concept that intelligence and brain size were directly related.

Harvey injected 11.4% formalin through the internal carotid arteries and afterwards suspended the intact brain in 10% formalin. Harvey photographed the brain from many angles. He then dissected it into about 240 blocks (each about 1 cm3) and encased the segments in a plastic-like material called collodion.  Those sections were then sliced in microscopic slivers and mounted onto slides and stained. There were 12 sets of slides created with hundreds of slides in each set. Harvey retained two complete sets for his own research and distributed the rest to handpicked leading pathologists of the time.

In 1978, Einstein's brain was "rediscovered" in Dr. Harvey's possession. The brain sections had been preserved in alcohol in two large mason jars within a cider box for over 20 years.

Scientific studies have suggested that regions involved in speech and language are smaller, while regions involved with numerical and spatial processing are larger. Other studies have suggested an increased number of Glial cells in Einstein's brain, which provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system.

Operculum (brain).

Harvey had reported that Einstein had no parietal operculum in either hemisphere, but this finding has been disputed. Photographs of the brain show an enlarged Sylvian fissure (Lateral sulcus). In 1999, further analysis by a team at McMaster University, revealed that his parietal  operculum region in the frontal lobe of the brain was vacant. Also absent was part of a bordering region called Sylvian fissure. Researchers at McMaster University speculated that the vacancy may have enabled neurons in this part of his brain to communicate better. " This unusual brain anatomy...[missing part of the Sylvian fissure (Lateral Sulcus)]... may explain why Einstein thought the way he did". This study was based on photographs of the whole brain made at autopsy in 1955 by Harvey, and not direct examination of the brain.

Harvey never gave up on his belief that the brain would reveal something special. Near the end of his life, after carting the brain around the country, he returned to the place from which he had taken it: Princeton Hospital. If Einstein's brain ever truly reveals its secrets, Harvey won't be here to see it; he died in 2007 at the age of 94. In 2010, Harvey's heirs transferred all of his holdings constituting the remains of Einstein's brain to the National Museum of Health and Medicine, including 14 photographs of the whole brain never before revealed to the public. Einstein and the mystery of his brain, however, live on.

EPILOGUE
The studies on Albert Einstein's Brain has not yeild a conlusive result so far. At this point, scientists don't know enough about how the brain works to know if the theories are accurate. For all visible purposes, Einstein's brain seems perfectly normal, with nothing that would immediately indicate any great genius. We may not know anything until there's another equivalent genius brain to study.
Compiled by: Davidson Karakkad || Source: wikipedia.org. || Please mail your valuable comments about this article and other contents in this website to: datatorch@gmail.com. Also please suggest interesting life stories to include in this website
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Albert Einstein’s Love affair and his Marriage

In 1896, Albert Einstein, at the age of seventeen, enrolled in the four-year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Zurich Polytechnic.Einstein's future wife, Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that same year. She enrolled for the diploma course to teach physics and mathematics in secondary schools at the same time as Albert Einstein. She was the only woman in her group of six students, and only the fifth woman to enter that section. She and Einstein became close friends quite soon. During the next few years, Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance, and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest.

Albert Einstein.
Mileva Maric.

In 1900, Einstein was awarded the Zurich Polytechnic teaching diploma, but Marić failed the examination with a poor grade in the mathematics component, theory of functions. Marić's academic career was disrupted in 1901 when she became pregnant by Einstein. When three months pregnant, she resat the diploma examination, but failed for the second time without improving her grade. She also discontinued work on her diploma dissertation that she had hoped to develop into a Ph.D. thesis. She went to Novi Sad, where her daughter, referred to as Lieserl, was born in 1902, probably in January. Her fate is unknown: she may have died in late summer 1903, or been given up for adoption.

Einstein married Mileva on 6 January 1903, although his mother had objected to the match because she thought Marić "too old" and "physically defective." Their relationship was for a time a personal and intellectual partnership. In a letter to her, Einstein called Marić "a creature who is my equal and who is as strong and independent as I am”. In 1904 their first son Hans Albert was born. In 1910 their second son Eduard was born.

The marriage had been in difficulties since 1912, in the spring of which Einstein became reacquainted with his cousin Elsa Löwenthal (née Einstein), following which they began a regular correspondence. Marić, who had never wanted to go to Berlin, became increasingly unhappy in the city. Soon after settling in Berlin, Einstein insisted on harsh terms if she were to remain with him. In the summer of 1914, Marić took the boys back to Zurich, a move that was to become permanent. Einstein made a commitment, drawn up by a lawyer, to send her an annual maintenance of 5600 Reichsmarks in quarterly installments, just under half of his salary. The couple divorced on February 14, 1919. They had negotiated a settlement whereby the Nobel Prize money that Einstein anticipated he would soon receive was to be placed in trust for their two boys, while Marić would be able to draw on the interest, but have no authority over the capital without Einstein's permission. After Einstein married his second wife in June, he returned to Zurich to talk to Marić about the children's future, taking Hans Albert on Lake Constance and Eduard to Arosa for convalescence.

In 1922, Einstein received news that he had won the Nobel Prize in November and the money was transferred to Marić in 1923. The money was used to buy three houses in Zurich: Marić lived in one, a five story house at Huttenstrasse, the other two were investments. In the late 1930s the costs of Eduard's care—he had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and institutionalized at the University of Zurich psychiatric clinic "Burghölzli" —overwhelmed Marić and resulted in the forced sale of two of the houses. In 1939 Marić agreed to transfer ownership of the Huttenstrasse house to Einstein in order to prevent its loss as well, with Marić retaining power of attorney. Einstein also made regular cash transfers to Marić for Eduard's and her own livelihood. Marić died at the age of 72 on August 4, 1948 in Zurich.

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